She suffered from Sjogren syndrome and inflammatory arthritis and was currently treated with prednisone and methotrexate. She was previously treated with hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) 200mg bid (6.5mg/kg) for 10 years, which was stopped one year prior to presentation. Plaquenil chronic fatigue syndrome Hydroxychloroquine for lichen planus Plaquenil depression The overall prevalence of HCQ retinopathy was 7.5%, but this increased to around 20% after 20 years of use for those taking 4.0–5.0 mg/kg ABW/day and can exceed 50% at 20 years for those taking. Of retinopathy, as a result of long term use of hydroxychloroquine. Evidence suggests the prevalence of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy has been underestimated and recommends a hospital based screening programme for patients to provide assurance that current treatment regimens are within safe parameters. Hydroxychloroquine HCQ retinopathy is of concern because of the potential seriousness of visual loss and the medicolegal consequences of failure to detect toxicity. However, there have been limited demographic data on which to base recommendations for screening. Review of systems: Blurred vision, halos, dry eye, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, joint pain Pupils: Reactive to light in each eye from 5 mm in the dark to 2 mm in the light. Extraocular movements: Full, both eyes (OU) Confrontation visual fields: Full OU Intra-ocular pressure The optic nerves appeared healthy with a 0.3 cup-to-disc ratio. Past Ocular History: None Medical History: Sjogren syndrome and inflammatory arthritis, supraventricular tachycardia, anxiety, depression, peptic ulcer disease Medications: prednisone, methotrexate, amitriptyline, ranitidine, estradiol, tizanidine, diltiazem, Restasis Allergies: codeine, droperidol Family History: heart disease, arthritis, cancer Social History: occasional alcohol but no tobacco or intravenous drug use. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy prevalence Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity Rheumatology., Hydroxychloroquine and Retinal Screening Does plaquenil cause acnePlaquenil and risperdal Background/Purpose Hydroxychloroquine HCQ is a commonly used medication for SLE because of its highly favorable risk-benefit ratio. Drug-induced retinopathy is one of very few serious toxicities associated with long-term use. Studies have reported varied prevalence of HCQ retinopathy ranging from 0.5% to 7.5%. The Risk of Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy in an SLE.. Rates and Predictors of Hydroxychloroquine Retinal.. Rates and Predictors of Hydroxychloroquine Retinal Toxicity.. The exact incidence and prevalence of HCQ-induced retinal toxicity is unknown. As the incidence and prevalence data on collagen vascular disorders such as SLE and RA are variable, it is difficult to calculate the exact risk of retinal toxicity among patients with RA and SLE who are treated with HCQ. Diagnosis Hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity Discussion. Chloroquine CQ and hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil HCQ have been used for many years, initially for the treatment of malaria but now more commonly for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus 1. As a result, the studies conducted on the disease yielded quite a very low prevalence of disease, 1 in 270.12 Currently, physicians tend to detect CQ retinopathy at an earlier stage on the basis of the revised AAO recommendations; therefore, most of recent studies showed higher prevalence rates ranging from 7.3% to 26.6%.9–12 The incidence from this study could not be compared directly with previous studies that reported the prevalence.